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How to install ceramic on the floor in a simple way

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How to Install Ceramic Flooring

Installing ceramic flooring is a fantastic way to improve the aesthetics and functionality of any space, whether it is the bathroom, kitchen or any other area of your home. However, to achieve long-lasting and professional results, it is important to follow the right steps. In this detailed guide, I'll take you through every stage of how to install ceramic the easy way, from preparation to the finishing touches, so you can carry out your project with confidence and success.

Tools:

  1. Drill No. 6 (concrete)
  2. Chisel
  3. Hammer
  4. Ceramic cutter
  5. Dado
  6. Screwdriver
  7. Squad
  8. Angle grinder with grinding disc
  9. Spatula
  10. Forger
  11. Gloves and goggles
  12. Tape measure and pencil
  13. Miter saw
  14. Sandpaper
  15. Ceramic file
  16. Smooth or notched trowel
  17. Rubber mallet
  18. Bubble level
  19. Caulking gun (for silicone)
  20. Platacho
  21. Roller
  22. Drill
  23. Ceramic tongs
  24. Chalk

The materials to use:

  1. Setting additive
  2. Ceramics for floors and/or walls
  3. Sponge
  4. Forge
  5. Wood Ribbons
  6. Transparent hose
  7. Mortar
  8. Separators
  9. Silicone with fungicide

Steps for installing ceramic flooring

If in your house you have to put ceramics, you must choose the appropriate palmette, since they are of different types depending on the place in which you want to install them.

Floor Ceramic Installation

Floor ceramics, whether in the bathroom or kitchen, are classified according to their resistance to traffic. They are recommended to have some level of abrasion and anti-slip properties.

Ceramic Floor Back

Ceramics for Wall

The wall ceramics are thinner than the floor ceramics and have a pale color on the back of the palm.

Wall Ceramic Reverse.

Ceramics for Terrace Floor

For the exterior, use ceramics with low water absorption and resistance to external agents such as ice, the sun, etc.

Recommendations:When purchasing, add an additional 5% of ceramics for losses in the finishing cuts and bevels. We also recommend saving some palmettes as spare parts for future repairs, since new batches could have small variations or be discontinued.

A. PRELIMINARY TASKS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF CERAMIC FLOOR

Whether you want to change existing ceramics or put them in a place where there has never been one, there is some prep work to do.

  1. Take out the artifacts
  2. Take out the old ceramics
  3. Prepare the surface
  4. Remove the lead from the wall
  5. Take out the wall level
  6. Draw the level of the wall
  7. Chop the surface
  8. Mark a guide square on the floor
  9. Level the walls with mortar

Take out old ceramics

It is not advisable to install ceramics on ceramics, since over time they will loosen because the adhesive needs a more porous surface for a good grip. Additionally, in the case of the floor, differences could occur with the heights of the doors. To remove them you need a hammer and a chisel. With these two tools, the palmettes are broken until they are completely released, also removing the glue.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Step #1. Mark a guide square on the floor

  • The floor and/or wall must be completely level, otherwise the new ceramic will not be installed properly.
  • If the surface does not have this condition, to be matched it is necessary:
How to install ceramic in a simple way

For Concrete

  • Mortar (a product that comes premixed) and a platacho that will help you spread with semicircular movements until the surface is smooth.

For Partition

  • Cracks are fixed with base plaster or demuro paste. The two mixtures are applied with a smooth trowel.
How to install ceramic in a simple way

In both cases it is left to dry completely before continuing with the next task.

Importance of Level and Lead

An essential task to correctly assemble the ceramics is to level the floor and walls. You also have to remove the lead from the wall on which you will work. These steps are necessary because floors and walls are generally not in a straight line. This ensures that:

Tilted palmettes

The palmets are well assembled and aligned, preventing the joining lines from tilting as it is installed and remaining diagonal.

Palmettes at different heights

All the ceramic palmettes in a row are at the same height.

Step #2. Get Lead Out of the Wall

It is determining and drawing a vertical line on the wall that will serve as a guide.

To remove the lead, a nail is placed in the highest part of the wall.
The lead rope is tied to this nail so that it hangs freely as far down as possible without touching the ground and before the dust cover. (if you have it).

Once hung, you should wait for it to remain completely still.
When it is still, hold the lead against the wall without diverting it to any side and make a mark with the pencil right in the place indicated by the tip of the lead.

Then a nail is placed on the mark below, the lead is removed and a piece of chalk is tied to both nails. It is tightened, and then the canvas is pulled and released so that the chalk marks the vertical.

Step #3. Remove Wall Level

The first thing is to level the walls so that the ceramics are straight. This is a task for 2 people.

A mark is made at any height on one of the walls and the end of the hose is placed where the water level coincides with the mark. • A small diameter transparent hose (approx. 1 cm) is filled with water. that is long enough to reach different points on each wall of the room. You have to be careful not to overflow.

Recommendation

Before making the mark, calculate the height of the ceramics, in this case the one we chose measures 45 cm. And take that measurement or some multiple of it as a level. Example 45×2=90 cm high.

  • One person holds one end of the hose matching the water level with the mark previously made on the wall, while the second person holds the other end of the hose where the wall ends.
  • The water level is matched at both points and allowed to stabilize. To achieve this, you can move the hose or let air in by covering and uncovering one of the ends with your thumb.
  • When the water level has stabilized, a mark is made on the second point that will be exact and equivalent to the measurement on the first mark. • The natural leveling that the water seeks helps to achieve exactly the same height in all the walls of the room.

This step is repeated on the other walls starting from the mark already made, and then with a chalk, mark the line that will start the installation of ceramics. • With the marked lead and level, the guide square is obtained, that is , the crossing of the vertical and horizontal line that orders the placement of the ceramics.

Chalk

This tool is used to mark guide lines on walls and floors. It consists of a rolled canvas that has colored chalk and is cut as needed. Both the canvas and the chalk are rechargeable.

To mark a line, the canvas is tightened by tying it to a pair of nails that have been previously placed in each of the marks.

Then the canvas is pulled and released so that the chalk marks the surface.

Step #4. Plot Wall Level

To obtain the floor level, it is necessary to first obtain the level of at least two of the walls. A string is pulled from wall to wall between the marks of the levels previously drawn. This must be well tensioned. Then, with a tape measure, it is verified if there is 1 meter of distance from the floor throughout the entire path that the string takes. If there is excess or lack, it is because the floor is higher in some point and sunken in another, so it will be necessary to fill with mortar where it is below the level or chip where it is above the level. This procedure is repeated at various points on the floor until the entire surface is complete.

Step #5. Chop surface

Ceramics need a porous and irregular surface to adhere well, so it is important to chip concrete walls and floors. • This work is done by hitting with a hammer and chisel.

Step #6. Mark a guide square on the floor

To guide the placement of the palmettes on the floor, a guide square must be drawn. This is marked considering the way in which the ceramics are going to be arranged and where the cuts are going to be left.

In a square or rectangular space, the guides are drawn parallel to the walls at a distance that will depend on the size of the ceramics. For example, to install 20 x 30 cm palmettes, a parallel line is drawn 20 cm away from wall “A” and a parallel line is drawn 30 cm away from wall “B”.

In an irregularly shaped space, the guides are drawn so that they guide the placement of the palmettes so that they coincide with the walls in the most visible areas and are cut in the less visible ones.

B. INSTALL CERAMIC ON THE FLOOR

Where to start…

Before starting the installation, you must plan the position of the ceramics and determine if it is necessary to make cuts. If so, they are located in the least visible areas, behind the door or appliances.

Floor Only: Start at the corner furthest from the entrance, so as not to step on the newly glued ceramics. If the walls have ceramics, you must remove the first run of palmettes and replace them with a new run after placing the ones on the floor. This is done so that the ceramics on the wall are mounted on those on the floor.

Wall Only: The first palmette is placed just above a wooden strip that marks the level, and continues with the others until reaching the sky. Then the bar is removed to continue downwards.

Wall and Floor: It begins with the installation of the floor ceramics. The first palmette that is placed is the one in the farthest corner from the entrance. By placing those on the floor first, you can place those on the wall on top of them and thus achieve a perfect union between the two.

Recommendation:

For installing ceramic tiles on walls, a good tip is to screw a wooden strip to the wall just below the mark made with the chalk, since in addition to marking the level it helps hold the ceramic tiles until the adhesive dries. To continue installing ceramics downwards, the strip must be removed.

Step #1. Put Adhesive

Types of adhesive: depends on the type of surface on which you want to install: AC (ceramic adhesive) Concrete floors and walls. DA (double action) Plasterboard, Internit and non-shredable materials.

The two types of adhesives have the same way of application.

Put a good amount of adhesive on a notched trowel and spread it with the flat side, pressing so that it soaks into the wall or floor.

  • Then, with the toothed part, the glue is combed in different directions. These grooves allow the palmettes to adhere better.
  • Another way to use the adhesive is to put it on the back of each palmette.

Recommendation

For the ceramic to have better adhesion, ensure that the teeth of the trowel leave noticeable marks. The adhesives dry quickly, so it is better to work in small sections and not cover the reference lines that have been marked with the chalk. If the glue hardens it is better to remove it and apply a new layer.

Step #2. Put ceramics

Once you have a first section with adhesive, place the palmets, but without sliding them as this will cause the glue to run. For the palmettes to sit correctly, you only have to give small blows with the rubber mallet (the handle of a hammer or other tool can also be used).

Recommendation:

Large spaces between palms should be avoided, as they are difficult to keep clean and the ceramics tend to come loose.

With separator

After having installed the first tile and before placing the next one, plastic separators are placed that will give the right separation between each ceramic. If a little adhesive has spread between the palms, remove it with a pointed object. It can be a matchstick or a knife, since once dry it will occupy the space corresponding to the forge.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Ceramic cutting

To make straight cuts, the manual ceramic cutter is used, which has a reinforced and changeable diamond wheel that cuts the palmettes. These cutters have different length measurements depending on the size of the palmettes to be cut. They can be 30, 40, 50 or 60 cm long.

First place the ceramic under the rails, facing the front guide and aligned with the cutting wheel.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Then move the handle towards the center of the ceramic and push down precisely. This will cut the piece in two.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Once the ceramic is located, press down and slide the handle forward so that the surface is marked with a continuous line.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Using a ceramic file, file the edge of the palmettes that were rough.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

To make curved, irregular or corner cuts, for cases such as fitting pipes, use a pliers with hardened teeth. The cuts should be made little by little, especially on the edges that are more fragile.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Step #3. Level the ceramics

To prevent any palmette from being too far out or too deep in the glue, the setting block is used, which is a piece of wood with a piece of carpet. It is placed diagonally on the surface and gently hammered until the ceramics are level with each other. Then put the flexible ones in each of the water inlets. To do this, we screw the flexible nut onto the water inlet of the faucet. Again use the Stillson wrench to ensure that the nut is tight.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Step #4. Forge

The glue is left to dry for 24 hours and can then set. That is, spreading a paste – the forge – between the joints to cover them. For its application, a set is used, which allows the set to be spread without scratching the ceramic.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

The set is placed in the set and applied making diagonal, vertical or horizontal movements on the entire surface of the ceramic, always trying to pass the set cleanly again to remove excess set. It is essential that all the separations between panels be filled with mortar so that moisture does not transfer to the wall.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Recommendation:

The forge comes in different colors, but in general it is preferable to use a tone similar to that of ceramic. Furthermore, on the floor it is recommended to use a color that does not highlight the dirt too much. The preparation instructions for the set come on the packaging. The set must be left to rest until the paste acquires the required consistency. Additionally, you can add an insulating additive that will protect against moisture and dirt.

Step #5. Cleaning the sink

After having the entire wall or floor set, and before it dries completely, the set is lowered between the palmettes so that it is lower than the surface of the face of the ceramics. We can do this with the tip of the handle of a tool or with the corner of the sponge that will be used next to remove the set on the ceramic. This prevents pieces of mortar from breaking or falling off.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Once the set is completely dry, a damp sponge is used to remove the set film that has remained on the palmettes. To successfully complete this task, rinse the sponge frequently.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

C. FINISH INSTALLATION CERAMIC FLOOR

After installation there are some tasks that can help improve the appearance and durability of the ceramics.

Installation of artifacts and taps

Allow 24 hours for the set to harden completely, after which you can reinstall the taps and appliances.

How to install ceramic in a simple way

Seal the joints

  • Silicone with fungicide is used to seal all joints between ceramics and tubs, ponds and toilets.
  • The application is done with a caulking gun so that the silicone comes out of the tube easily and cleanly.
How to install ceramic in a simple way

Installing ceramic flooring may seem like a challenging task, but by following these basic steps you can achieve professional, long-lasting results in your home. Remember to take your time, follow the manufacturer's instructions, and don't be afraid to ask for help if necessary. With a little patience and practice, you can enjoy a beautiful and functional ceramic floor or wall in your home!

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